JOHN CADMAN'S RESEARCH
The Subterranean Chamber Water Pump and Pulse Generator
by John Cadman
(updated September 2002)
IMPORTANT NOTE: The theory and model presented are NOT the same as Kunkel's. ("The Pharaoh's Pump")
IS THE GREAT PYRAMID A PUMP?
Yes, and no. There is a pump incorporated into the lowest 58' of the pyramid, but the WHOLE building could be removed and the pump would still run.
HOW IT STARTED
In May of '99 I came across excerpts from Edward Kunkel's Book, "The Pharaoh's Pump" in Richard Noone's "5/5/2000". Intrigued at first, and fascinated later, I decided to build the "Construction Pump". This consisted of the descending passage, well shaft, horizontal passage, sub chamber and dead end shaft. A 1:48 scale created a nice sized sub chamber - approximately 7" wide x 12" long x 6" high.
If you are unfamiliar with hydraulic ram pumps, you should check out this site (and others):
Evidently, Kunkel had built portions of this configuration and had "PHENOMENAL" success. After three months of sifting through various pictures, sketches, and descriptions of the sub chamber, the first model was ready to try. It was a resounding failure. Not only did it leak, but worse yet, it didn't pump!
I had underestimated the amount of force in the "hydraulic hammer effect". The first 3 models cracked. Scott Lee, a hydraulic ram pump designer, related that he had a pump (with only 3 feet of head) blow the bonnet off a 2" PVC gate valve when the air compression chamber had become water logged. The burst pressure for this line is 300 psi. The static pressure of the line would have been 1.5 psi!
BELIEFS FROM THE BEGINNING:
1. The sub chamber is a whirlpool chamber. (Kunkel)
2. The well in front of the Pyramid door was the water supply from lake Moeris. (Vyse)
3. There was a tall enclosure surrounding the pyramid at least 60 feet high. (accepted)
NEW YEAR'S EVE 1999 - SYNCHRONICITY
The night of 12/31/99, while sitting in a hospital waiting room, with a crying kid watching, the configuration came to me. The perpetual notebook and odd pyramid book in hand, I sketched like mad.
Four months and lots of fiberglass, epoxy, brass, PVC pipe, and 500 pounds of cement later . . . It runs!!
(April 3, 2000)
1. The descending passage pipe doesn't shake like the drive pipes of other ram pumps.
2. The majority of the reverse pulse is absorbed by the sub chamber assembly.
3. The output from "the dead end shaft" is capable of easily elevating water to any part of the Great Pyramid.
The check valve in the descending passage is not critical. (a la Kunkel)
Chris Dunn is right about the sub chamber being the room which drove the pyramid to resonance.
FORCES AND MODELS
The sub chamber utilized two distinctly different forces: Fluid dynamics and acoustics. Therefore two distinct models were created.
Acoustic Model: Steel reinforced concrete keeps this one together. This model can be felt through the ground from 20 feet and can be heard at 100 feet. The "pulse generator" model also pumps water to various elevations. There is no doubt that the sub chamber could shake the whole pyramid and could elevate water to any part of the Giza plateau - pyramid peaks included..
Fluid dynamics model: A glass top and glass eastern wall enable viewing of the water flow. It has been fitted with 25 individual ink injection locations. The various water flows can be demonstrated by varying which ink injection ports are open.
TWO YEARS OF OBSERVATIONS
WELL SHAFT & GROTTO
One function of the well shaft & grotto is to reduce the reverse surge up the descending passage. The surge would have blown water clear over the moat wall from the descending passage entrance. This is completely verified by the model.
What are some of the other effects of the well shaft?
If the well shaft and grotto combo are utilized then the output of the "dead end shaft" reduces dramatically . . . especially as the elevation rises. Therefore the primary function was NOT for pumping water.
RATIO: PUMPED vs. WASTED
Elevation: GP Moat Level (+0’) (well shaft "on") 1:3.5
GP Moat Level (+0’) (well shaft "off") 1:2.5
Chephron Moat Level (+100’) (well shaft "on") 1:9.25
Chephron Moat Level (+100’) (well shaft "off") 1:3
Rear of Sphinx (-100’) (well shaft "on") 1:0.6
(This shows versatility and also supports a hunch)
Since the pumping efficiency was NOT of prime importance then the modification of the compression wave timing to create a standing wave in the sub chamber assembly can be reasonably assumed.
The grotto is an expansion chamber which limits the reverse pulse height int he well shaft.
The well shaft was also a return line for the fluid which entered the Queen’s chamber.
RESONANT FREQUENCIES OF SUB CHAMBER - CALCULATIONS
The sub chamber is primarily a split level room. The entrance area height averages 134". The step area is primarily 67" high. These figures become significant when determining what the resonant frequency would be for a vertical compression wave entering the room from the pit.
The room utilizes a lowest common denominator of 67".
Sound traveling in water at 68 deg F travels at 5000 ft/1 sec
(This does not take into account: pressure in wastegate line, relative fluid velocities, and assumes temperature. It does give a good approximation, though.)
(440 cycles/1 sec) / (5000 ft/1 sec) => 1 cycle =134"
(880 cycles/1 sec) / (5000 ft/1 sec) => 1 cycle =67"
Therefore the resonant frequencies of this room are 440 Hz and 880 Hz. These are the same or complimentary to the frequency of the King’s chamber.
GASSING IN SUB CHAMBER
There is a negative pressure wave in the wastegate line (observed). This negative pressure is caused by the rarefaction wave. This should have caused cavitation in the sub chamber. There is erosion evidence on the sub chambers ceiling which corresponds to trapped gases. (Model demonstrates specific movement)
There also existed dissolved limestone. This impurity in the water would have enabled electrolysis. The resonance, compression and cavitation coupled with rushing water, multiple vortices, water impurities and the electrical nature of limestone would have probably caused gassing in the sub chamber. Any gasses would be diverted into line to Queen's chamber.
The pyramid’s moat required excess water inflow to maintain a specific static level. This is critical for wave timing. The excess water was removed by the causeway which ran down to the Nile River
THE "DEAD END SHAFT" - CHANGE THE PRESSURE to CHANGE THE TIMING
The dead end shaft output is for pumped water, BUT mainly allowed for fine tuning the compression wave timing.
There would need to be a simple means to compensate for variance in water temperature and atmospheric pressure since these factors would change the velocity of the compression wave. It needed an easy fine tuning mechanism. Adjusting backpressure by adjusting a gate valve at the end of the shaft allowed for changes in timing. The pulse rate can be varied by at least 30 percent. This would easily allow for fine tuning of the lower assembly to create a standing wave in sub chamber / wastegate line.
THE WASTEGATE LINE or TUNNEL FROM PIT TO SPHINX AREA
There existed a 4’ square tunnel from the bottom of the pit to the area just east of the Sphinx. This tunnel did not pass under the Sphinx but exited about 100' in front of Sphinx temple. It dumped into the ancient lake Hathor / Nile.
The wastegate is horizontal . . . essentially a reversed check valve. 1 rectangular moving rock within a passage. Probably 4’x4’x6’ granite or basalt, the valve is closed by the flowing water. This closing of the valve causes a compression wave which is sent up the tunnel to the sub chamber. The valve is reopened by the rarefaction wave which immediately follows the compression wave. (Observed in model)
THE LINE FROM SUB CHAMBER TO QUEEN’S CHAMBER NICHE.
The Queen’s chamber is only 12’ above the moat level. There existed a line (tunnel) from the most northwesterly sub chamber quadrant up to the niche in the Queen’s chamber. This line was utilized for removal of air and other gases. The perked water into the Queen's chamber would pool in the room and then run down the horizontal passage to the top of the well shaft. This would be totally self contained and self correcting. (Thanks Laura Lee)
The amount of water perked up to the Q's chamber was probably restricted by the shaft size and probably had a check valve just above the sub chamber.
The only direction for the gas to escape is up thru the King's chamber air shafts. They would be pumped in that direction.
I'm not sure which gas "perked" with water up to the Queen’s chamber niche. Air, hydrogen, oxygen or a mixture.
ABOVE GROUND ALIGNMENTS
There is a 5 point alignment between northwest corner GP, sub chamber pit, southeast corner GP, southwest corner Q1 pyramid, northeast corner Sphinx temple and a very, very curiously offset temple just north of the Sphinx temple. The northeast side of the last bulding should be directly over the wastegate line and probably accesses the wastegate valve. The wastegate line should exit east of the Sphinx temple’s mid point . . . approximately 100’ east and 30’ below surface. This just happens to be the location of mysterious pink granite.
WHY THE NORTHWEST - SOUTHEAST ALIGNMENT?
The sub chamber pit is offset by 45 degrees also. This is strictly for acoustical dynamics at the BOTTOM of the pit shaft (presently buried). A flat plane placed at a 45 degree angle will MAINTAIN the unidirectionality of the compression wave. Any other type elbow at the bottom of the pit would scatter / diffract the compression wave. To create the standing wave in the wastegate / sub chamber it would be imperative to have the flat plane elbow.
THE "DEAD END SHAFT" AND THE "WATER SHAFT" ("TOMB OF OSIRIS")
The "dead end shaft" is at the same elevation as the lowest chamber of the "Water Shaft". The "Water Shaft" is a multiple room structure located under middle pyramid's causeway. It took 4 years of continuous pumping to remove the water. In the northwest corner of the lowest room there exists a small tunnel which heads towards a possible juncture.
1. The walled enclosure around the Great Pyramid was a moat.
2. The water supply for the moat provided more water than the Great Pyramid consumed.
3. The excess water was removed by the causeway.
4. The sub chamber is not an air compression chamber. (a la Kunkel)
5. The water saturated sub chamber transmits shock waves to the ceiling.
6. There was an air/gas removal line in the northwest area of the sub chamber.
7. The air/gas removal line is connected to the niche in the Queen's chamber.
8. The air/gas removal line also perked water into Queen's chamber.
9. The well shaft functions as a water return line from the Queen's chamber.
10. The well shaft minimizes the reverse pulse in the descending passage.
11. The grotto functioned as an expansion chamber to limit reverse pulse.
12. The subterranean chamber's ante chamber functioned as an acoustic filter.
13. There is water output through the dead end shaft.
14. The water output was connected to some degree with the "water shaft".
15. There is a gate valve at the end of the "dead end shaft".
16. The gate valve was the fine tuning mechanism for the standing wave in the wastegate line.
17. The pit is connected via tunnel to a wastegate in front of the "Sphinx Temple" (Lake Hathor).
THE SUBTERRANEAN CHAMBER HAS THREE FUNCTIONS:
1. Provide water and possibly hydrogen to Queen's chamber.
2. Provide 440 Hz pulse for King's chamber.
3. Provide water and possibly pulse for other structures on Giza Plateau.
The reasons for the pulse can be seen in Chris Dunn's and Mark McCarron's works. I believe it is a combination of their works.
He who solves this puzzle will have to take all of the factors into consideration . . . including shape effect. The shape is an energy lens which utilizes ‘e’ for exponential energy growth. (Rick Howard)
THERE IS STILL MUCH TO BE DISCOVERED . . .
Bobby Schmidt wrote telling of observing "two symmetrical tunnels leading from the base of the Pyramid attributed to Chefron had been excavated. What was very intriguing about these two tunnels was the fact that they were leading down the hill toward the old shoreline of the River Nile, possibly at the Sphinx Temples. They were constructed from squared stone, completely enclosed (one large roof part had been removed so to allow for peering into the tunnel itself), and they ran in what appeared to be very straight parallel lines toward the ancient shoreline. What amazed me even more was that the tunnels were completely surrounded by at least a five foot thick layer of some sort of fuel such as coal or something. It was very evident that it had been burning at an incredible temperature before, and it now looked like volcanic rock." (Approximately 5' wide by 6' deep)
Also, I came across a tidbit regarding rushing water having some sort of effect on humans. This may all tie together.
We shall go on to the end,
Whatever the cost shall be . . .
. . .WE SHALL NEVER SURRENDER!!
Any questions or comments are welcome and can be sent to ZostedGuy@Yahoo.com
©2000, 2001, 2002 Copyrighted by John Cadman. All rights reserved. Reproduction prohibited without written consent.